It is the steep and formidable stone stairway that makes this fortress unique. The stone steps are narrow (in width) and are at a 70-degree angle reaching up to a height of about 92m (300ft). Although I am not scared of heights, I am careful climbing up because a misstep would mean an unnecessary tumble.

This is Yapahuva, another of Sri Lanka’s ancient capital strongholds. Initially built to serve as a military outpost for  Senapathi General Subhapabbota during the reign of King Buvanekabhahu I (1271 – 1284) its height and vantage point was useful as a sentinel during south Indian King Kalinga Magha’s (1215-1236) invasion of Sri Lanka along with 24,000 of his soldiers.

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Scotland is lovely. Actually, Scotland is more than just lovely…it is unreservedly friendly, full of unpronounceable words and has some absolutely fascinating history.

My journey into Scotland begins in Stirling.

Located between Glasgow and Edinburgh, Stirling is a quiet, laidback city in central Scotland with its own share of history.

Wallace Monument

On the Abbey Craig outcrop stands the 19th-century National Wallace Monument, and overlooks the site of the 1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge, where William Wallace defeated the English. This is also where the Battle of Bannockburn took place when Robert the Bruce adopted ‘hit and run’ guerrilla tactics and largely succeeded in driving the English from Scotland.

At the heart of its old town is the medieval Stirling Castle, its impressive architecture and historical value making this one of Scotland’s grandest castles.

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Imagine over 500 monks living and meditating silently in a thickly forested, 1,600 acre, mountainous monastic retreat which has architecturally faultless waterways, drip ledges, stairways cut into stone, naturally ‘air conditioned’ caves, toilets, monuments, artefacts and other cool stuff. Now imagine all this happened over 3000 years ago!

This is Rajagala, a sprawling Buddhist monastery from the 2nd century BCE through the early 13th century. Vacated in 993 and 1017AD due to South Indian invasions, this retreat was discovered in 1890 by the Department of Archeology when an unusual amount of relics were recorded in their surveys. But once again, this monastic complex was forgotten until excavation began in the early 1950s during which time they discovered over 600 prehistoric ruins, monuments and artefacts, nearly a 100 of them being ancient stupas.

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COVID-19 disrupted a lot of my travel plans throughout 2021. The frequent lockdowns and travel restrictions meant that pre-booked destinations had to be postponed indefinitely. One of which was my trip to the Ahaspokuna in Belihuloya where I was to go in April 2021. Now, nine months later, I am finally on my way.

There is no road access from the main Rajawaka road to the campsite. Therefore we park our vehicles in the garden of a villager’s home and meet our guides from the campsite. Raj and his co-workers from the Ahaspokuna Bush Walks Campsite advise us to put on leech socks.

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It is easy to miss the inconspicuous turn off to the Kudumbigala Archaeological Site on the main road en route to the entrance of the Kumana National Park.

However, the Kudumbigala rock can be seen from this far, standing like a sentinel overlooking the Park below.

Even from this distance, the ancient cylindrical dome can be spotted.

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